Stud Farm in Autumn
The seasons are changing...
(Photo : Gareth du Plessis)

Warming up for Winter!

With a sudden gust and very little warning we seem to be well into autumn and heading for winter!

The days have been considerably cooler and all our horse blankets have been hastily taken out of their mothballs!

With winter almost upon us, now is also the time to reassess your feeding programme and make sure that you have stocked up on hay and Lucerne for the winter as, within another 6 weeks, pasture grazing will be greatly reduced as the first frosts hit us.

Bear in mind that horses use energy to keep warm, so if they sleep out, they will require more feed, preferably in the form of good quality roughage to maintain their body-weight.

Moving from chills to thrills, the Nissan Easter Festival is on at the Kyalami Equestrian Park and we wish all our Vuma clients a great weekend's competition.

The end of the month sees the Midfeeds-sponsored show at Maple Ridge and Vuma will be there too, to support our competitors.

Over the same weekend, from the 27th - 29th of April, the Bloodstock South Africa National Yearling Sales will be held at the TBA Sales Complex in Germiston. Most of the horses will start arriving around the 19th to settle in and will be ready for viewing. The catalogue is made up of some very nice individuals, so is well worth some close inspection.

Saturday the 28th of April sees the culmination of the Highveld Autumn season with the running of the SA Derby and SA Oaks on Champion's Day at Turffontein racecourse. This is always a great day out with some very exciting racing, including the President's Champions Challenge, the Computaform Sprint and the Gold Bowl.

So although winter is on the way, April holds a lot in store for us to keep the chills at bay!



Healthy horse running in Paddock

Maintaining a regular exercise programme can help prevent colic...
(Photo : FDW)

"Colic is any Horse Owner's Worst Nightmare"

Fourways Equine Clinic gives us their insight into colic; the definition, treatments and prevention.


Pop Quiz : What is colic?

A. Descriptive term used to indicate gastro intestinal distress or abdominal pain.
B. One of the most common killers of healthy adult horses.
C. Have multiple causes and presentations.
D. Considered an Equine emergency, however 90% are non-surgical.
E. All of the above.

The answer is E.

Colic is any horse owner's worst nightmare and when tragedy strikes, owners need to be informed as to the seriousness of their horse's condition and how to proceed.

Here is a brief summary of what you need to know.


The main definition of colic is abdominal pain. This pain can occur suddenly or very gradually. It may even be mild, waxing and waning over several hours to days. The signs of colic in each horse are variable and it all depends on the location, severity and cause of pain.

The most common signs of colic :


  1. Frequent stretching or what appears to look like frequent attempts to urinate.
  2. Pawing the ground.
  3. Flank looking or biting.
  4. Curling the upper lip (Flehman response).
  5. Lying down more than usually or repeated standing up or lying down procedures.
  6. Rolling or thrashing.
  7. Sweating, trembling, agitation or depression.
  8. Lack of appetite.
  9. Lack of faecal production or diarrhoea.



Until proven otherwise, colic is considered an equine emergency and requires further diagnostics from a veterinarian.

First step is to ensure your horse is in a safe place and can't injure themselves when rolling or thrashing. The second step is to phone your horse's vet for treatment.

Giving your horse any medication before a vet has done a clinical examination could hide important indications that the colic is more serious than it appears. It is always important to disclose all relevant information to the vet with regards to previous colic episodes, change in management, current condition and medication.

The vet check :


  1. The horse's demeanour - stressed, depressed, painful, agitated.
  2. The eyes and mouth - the colour of the mucous membranes can tell the state of pain (pale) or if the horse is in toxic shock (Bright red/purple). The capillary refill time will also aid in deciding whether the horse is dehydrated or cardiovascular compromised from shock.
  3. Heart Rate - Normal 24 - 40 beats per min in healthy horses.
  4. Respiratory rate - 6 - 12 breaths per min in stable horses.
  5. Abdominal sounds - Horses suffering from colic may have either increased gut sounds in the case of spasmodic colic or decreased gut sounds when intestines become compromised.
  6. Temperature - Normal 36.5 - 38.5°C. Some horses suffering from viruses may show signs of colic seen as a high temp, while horses that are in shock may have low body temps.
  7. Rectal - Gives your vet the greatest diagnostic information. This procedure allows vets to feel if all the internal organs are in their correct places.
  8. Naso-gastric incubation (passing a stomach tube) - Due to the fact that horses are unable to vomit, it is extremely important to pass a tube to drain excessive fluid off the stomach and prevent gastric rupture.



More than 90% of colic's are medically treatable and don't require surgery. Of these medical colic's, 80% can be treated at the yard and don't require hospitalization.

Medical treatment at the yard : Most colic's fall into this category. If the horses vital signs are all stable, the rectal is within normal limits and the horse responds to pain medication, yard treatment is usually successful. The most common cause of these colic's is impaction, gas or spasmodic colic and grain overload.

Medical treatment in hospital : Horses at the yard that have a moderately increased pulse (40 - 50bpm) and respiratory (+20) rate, requiring regular pain medication, refluxing large volumes of fluid, dehydrated or have mildly abnormal rectal's generally require hospital medical treatment. Medical hospital colic's include - nephron-splenic entrapment, severe impactions, mild displacements without vascular compromise, enteritis, colitis and ileus.

Surgical treatment : The biggest indication for surgery is the lack of response to medical treatment by the vet or an inability for pain medication to bring relief. Horses that are in shock i.e. high pulse (+60), laboured breathing, toxic membranes, dehydrated and trembling generally always require surgery. Other indications for surgery would include an abnormal rectal or ultrasound showing compromised gut walls. The goals of surgery are to relieve pain, correct fluid imbalances, identify and repair the cause of colic and to stimulate and maintain intestinal transit. The earlier surgery is performed, the less chance there is of diseased gut, lessening the prognosis of survival. Surgical colic's can include - small intestinal torsion, small intestinal impaction, severe enteritis, large colon displacement, large colon torsion, severe large colon impactions and enteroliths.


Not all cases of colic can be prevented, but appropriate and consistent management will decrease the chances of colic. Ways to minimize colic bouts include :


  1. Maintaining a regular exercise programme.
  2. Free access to water at all times.
  3. Consistent feeding schedule with balance between roughag and concentrates.
  4. Controlling internal parasites.
  5. If changes do need to be made in routine or diet, it is best to do so slowly and avoid changing more than 1 factor at any given time.


For more information, please visit :



Horses Grazing

A Case for Vuma Strike R8

Debbie Odell MSc Agric, Pr. Sci. Nat. Consultant nutritionist for Vuma Horse Feed.

debbie odell - equine nutrition cosultantDebbie OdellFeeding performance horses is somewhat of an art that evades perfection even after hundreds of years of concerted effort. One commonality in the feeding of performance horses is the need to supply high energy diets to facilitate the required workload. These diets are commonly grain based, with more emphasis, lately, being placed on fats and oils as an energy source. As we have discovered from bitter experience, we walk a fine line between supplying energy needs for effective training and performance, and breaking down the horse through grain overload. The digestive anatomy of the horse gives us practical clues as to how we should be feeding.

Digestive anatomy of the Horse

The horse is classified as a hind-gut fermenter. In simple terms, this means that the "front end" of the digestive system is similar to any other monogastric animal (e.g. man, chicken, pig etc), and that digestion takes place in the classical manner, by enzymatic breakdown and absorption of the end-products through the gut wall. The "back end" of the digestive system is housed within an enlarged colon and caecum, and breakdown of nutrients here is accomplished almost exclusively by microbial fermentation (similar to the processes in the rumen of a cow). The foregut (stomach and small intestine) has a small capacity (about 38% of the total) relative to the capacity of the hind gut. This would suggest that the horse is not well suited to large single meals, but rather to continuous intake of a high fibre diet. The hind gut contains a "microbial soup" - a host of different microbes which break down and utilize the substrate provided by the diet. Any feed that passes through the stomach and small intestine undigested, will be subjected to microbial fermentation in the hind gut. The end-products of the fermentation process are mainly volatile fatty acids, heat and gas.

However, horses need high energy diets in order to perform, and grains form the mainstay of such diets. The problem with high grain diets results from the disruption of the sensitive pH balance in the hind gut. The hind gut microbial population is not static, but changes depending upon the substrate provided. A diet high in carbohydrate and low in fibre will favour the microbial population with the capabilities of utilizing these substrates, to the detriment of others. The health of this microbial population is essential to the health of the horse. Sudden changes in diet will cause a radical die-off of segments of the microbial population that are not able to survive the new gut conditions. These dying microbes produce toxins which cause damage to the gut lining and may in turn enter the bloodstream, causing colic, and laminitis in acute cases.

High Grain Diets

Any excess of grain, over and above the capacity of the foregut to digest, enters the hindgut and is presented to the microbes for fermentation. The microbial population will change in order to accommodate the change in substrate. The microbes that are suited to fermentation of carbohydrate will proliferate, at the expense of others who will find the gut environment no longer suitable to their needs and will die. The end products of carbohydrate fermentation include volatile fatty acids and lactic acid, the presence of which will cause a reduction in the pH (i.e. a more acidic environment) in the hind gut, causing the gut lining to undergo degenerative changes and the hind gut to become "leaky" allowing toxins produced by the rapid die-off of microbes to enter the bloodstream.

Laminitis, Colic and Liver Function

Grain overload and resultant intestinal disease, are the most common cause of laminitis in horses. Toxins produced by the rapidly dying microbes that find access to the bloodstream through a compromised intestinal wall have been implicated in the development of laminitis. Studies in the USA have shown that over 45% of racehorses in training suffer from subclinical laminitis. Although not detectable at the trot, discomfort at the gallop where the pressure on the foot can exceed 1 ton per square inch, will reduce speed and result in "unexplained" poor performance.

In addition the lactic acid produced by fermentation of carbohydrates causes a generalized hind gut acidosis with a concomitant increase in blood lactate levels. Colic is often associated with elevated blood lactate levels. The liver of the horse will attempt to mop up the toxins entering the bloodstream, and will in the process also be compromised, contributing to elevated liver enzyme levels on blood tests.

Lighten Up!

The most classic cases of grain overload appear in horses which remain thin no matter how much is fed. The normal reaction to a horse that lightens up considerably is to "up the feed". In some cases though, the horse may not respond, or will respond by lightening up more. At this point the call to the feed manufacturer is made! The classic symptoms in these cases are soft and sour droppings, an indicator of gastric acidosis, and providing further concentrate will only exacerbate the condition. Although counter-intuitive, the correct way to deal with the condition would be to reduce the concentrates and increase the roughage portion of the diet. It is important to realize that this is a chronic condition and it is often remarkable how well these cases will respond to a period of spelling at grass.

"Tying Up"

Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER or "tying up") is another condition commonly associated with continued feeding of high grain diets combined with a resumption of heavy workload after a short rest. In simplified terms, during short rest phases when the feeding level is maintained, glycogen is stored in the muscles. During hard work, insufficient oxygen may reach the muscles to utilize this glycogen aerobically. Anaerobic conditions will then prevail causing inflammation from cell damage and the release of cell constituents into the bloodstream. This results in elevated blood creatine kinase levels and the distinctive discolouration of the urine caused by the presence of myoglobin. The onset of ER may have other trigger factors as well, but the common denominator in most cases is the feeding of a high grain diet.

High Grain Diets
Relationship between High Grain Diets and Incidence of Laminitis and Tying Up.

A note on Ulcers

High fibre diets necessitate thorough chewing. High concentrate diets require much less chewing than high fibre diets. It seems more than pure coincidence that horses on high concentrate diets are more prone to development of gastric ulcers. Part of the reason for this is because chewing induces saliva production - the more chewing, the more saliva. When horses chew hay, they produce twice the amount of saliva per kilogram, of dry matter than they do when they chew concentrates. This saliva accompanies the feed into the stomach when it is swallowed. Saliva is rich in buffers and these buffers help to moderate the acid response in the stomach and prevent acid build-up and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of gastric ulcers. Pelleted concentrates also appear to predispose horses towards gastric ulceration, possibly because of the necessity to grind the ingredients quite finely in order to bind the pellets, enabling them to be consumed faster with less saliva production.

Effects on Behaviour

Horses fed a high grain diet are by virtue of physical gut capacity, deprived of adequate levels of roughage. Low fibre levels in horse's diets have been associated with a number of behavioural anomalies including an increased incidence of wood chewing and coprophagy, wind-sucking, crib-biting, weaving, stall walking, variable appetite and sour attitude particularly evident at mealtimes. Certainly some of these vices may become habitual in the long term, but all potentially have their roots in the attempts to ease some of the physical and physiological distress caused by feeding high grain diets and inadequate roughage supply. Some studies suggest that horses alter their feeding habits to accommodate a high grain diet, by slowing down their consumption rate seemingly in an effort to reduce the amount of carbohydrate that reaches the hind gut where fermentation will take place. They therefore act to ameliorate a drop in hind gut pH that will result from carbohydrate fermentation, indicating a degree of nutritional wisdom.

Strategies to minimize negative effects

Diets high in grain are necessary to the supply of energy requirements to performance horses but there are strategies that can be employed to minimize the effects of grain overload in performance horses.

First and foremost one should work with the physical attributes of the horse. The capacity of the horses stomach is approximately 9 - 15 litres in total but it is rarely full as gastric emptying usually occurs when the stomach is two thirds full. Large meals will therefore increase the rate of gastric emptying, and in turn increase the rate of passage through the small intestine. It stands to reason then that a higher proportion of undigested grain will reach the hind gut for fermentation if large grain meals are fed. If meals are smaller, the rate of passage will be slower and the digestion process in the foregut will be more complete. It is a widely recommended rule of thumb that horses should be fed no more than 2 kg of grain at any one feed. If more concentrate is required rather increase the number of feeds per day than the amount of concentrate per meal. Processing of some grains will improve their digestibility in the small intestine.

Adequate roughage, usually supplied in the form of hay in performance yards, needs to be supplied. Horses should never stand without hay, including overnight. If the night allocation is finished by the morning check, then more should be supplied until there is some left over in the morning. Horses will eat periodically through the night and it is important that they have access to roughage. A period of starvation can increase the incidence of gastric ulcers, and can also affect blood results should samples be taken before a morning feed.

Feeding "to the manger" is a strategy often used, with the assumption that horses will eat what they need and leave the rest. Concentrate quantities are therefore increased gradually until the point where the horse leaves feed, and then that level becomes their daily allocation. Nutritional wisdom is sometimes overestimated and horses may over-eat concentrate at the expense of roughage, especially where roughage supply is erratic. With "old fashioned" diets which included higher quantities of fibre this method may have passed as acceptable, however most modern performance feeds are nutrient dense and contain very little fibre as their focus is on energy supply. It is most important that when feeding these diets one sticks to the manufacturers' recommendations in terms of daily allocation, and ensures intake and availability of good quality roughage at all times. It is also cheaper to feed this way, as not only is hay generally much less costly than concentrates, but the penalties paid for overfeeding concentrates in terms of veterinary fees and poor performance often go unrecognized.


Feed supplements like Strike R8™ can be provided to help reduce the effects of high grain diets on the body. Strike R8™ contains acid buffers that modify the acid response in the stomach, helping to prevent the formation of gastric ulcers related to high gain or finely ground diets. Citrate salts help buffer blood lactate and gut specific selective anti-microbials effectively modify hind gut microbial populations, reducing the drop in hind gut pH caused by high grain diets. These products have proved highly effective in the control of acidosis induced laminitis. In addition, Strike R8™ contains vitamins, minerals and electrolytes that assist in the prevention of nutrition induced tying up.


We walk a fine line between optimum performance and nutritional breakdown when feeding sporting and performance horses. The art of feeding is to stay on the optimum performance side of the line. Feed management is critical to this and factors that must be addressed on a daily basis include meal times and the size of each meal, provision of sufficient roughage, physical form of feed, increased utilization of fats and oils as a feed source to reduce the carbohydrate load, balanced vitamins, minerals and trace elements, and provision of effective feed supplements.



Pomodoro wins the Tony Ruffel Stakes

Pomodoro wins the Tony Ruffel Stakes (Grade 3) for trainer Sean Tarry
(Photo : Sporting Post)

A Golden Apple makes the Day!

Trainer Sean Tarry had a golden day on Saturday when Vuma-powered Pomodoro came home first in the Grade 3 Tony Ruffel Stakes. The three-year-old Jet Master colt out of the Northern Guest mare Golden Apple, bred and part-owned with Sean, by Chris van Niekerk, has now won four out of six starts. The colt placed in both his other races, one of which was the Grade 2 Dingaans on Sansui Summer Cup day in November 2011.

Sean also trains the fourth placed Heavy Metal, also owned by Chris van Niekerk.

Earlier in the day, the Vuma-powered Summerhill bred filly Extra Zero, by Way West, ran second in the Grade 3 Three Troikas Stakes for the yard and owners Messrs Blank, Bott, Nathan and Nestadt.

Our congratulations to the Sean Tarry yard and all the connections - we love to feed your champions!

Turffontein Inside, Turf, 1450m
4 February 2012


Fp Lbh Horse Kg MR Dr Jockey Trainer
1 0.00 POMODORO 58.0 102 1 C Little Sean Tarry
2 2.25 GOVERNOR GENERAL 55.5 85 6 A Delpech Mike de Kock
3 2.30 TANDRAGEE 57.5 94 7 M Mienie Gavin van Zyl
4 3.75 HEAVY METAL 55.5 85 8 R Fradd Sean Tarry
5 4.50 BROOKS-CLUB 55.5 97 4 P Strydom Gavin van Zyl
6 5.00 ROYAL RIDGE 55.5 87 12 M Yeni Mike de Kock
7 6.25 THE DUKE 55.5 80 9 G Wrogemann Robbie Sage
8 6.75 E-JET 55.5 93 3 T Appie Sean Tarry
9 8.50 AMERICANO 55.5 86 2 R Simons Paul Matchett
10 9.75 TONY'S TIPPLE 55.5 80 5 C Maujean Louis Goosen
11 16.00 SIDESTEP 55.5 94 11 G Lerena Alec Laird
12 18.25 EUROSILVER 55.5 93 10 * N Juglall Tyrone Zackey


vuma horse feed south africa


For more information contact :
Catherine Hartley : 083 640 1155



The correct application of bandages for your horse

The correct application of bandages for your horse
(Photo : Summerhill Stud)

"How to bandage your horse..."
Fourways Equine Clinic

The correct application of bandages for your horse.

As a horse owner, it is important to be able to treat basic injuries, particularly if you have to wait for a vet to get to you in an emergency. In our section on Views from the Professionals, Fourways Equine Clinic has kindly agreed to share their professional insights on various topics.

In this article they give essential advice on how to bandage a horse's leg for various common problems :

Basic Horse Bandages

In your role as manager of a yard or even as a horse owner, you may be required to bandage a horse's leg. In the event of a vet not being able to get to you immediately, it's important to know the basics while waiting for the vet to arrive. It is also useful to know how to re-apply a bandage after a vet visit. Bandages are mostly for protection. A bandage has to be sufficient in its purpose - a neat or good looking bandage may not necessarily provide the right function.

There are 2 important types of bandages :

  • Wound bandages
  • Support bandages

Wound Bandages

The main function of a wound bandage is to protect the wound. There are various types of wounds and a lot of different materials may be used to cover them. As long as the material is clean (if possible sterile) it can be used in an emergency. It is important to note that it must not "stick" (adhere) to the wound. Disinfect the wound with clean water and a disinfectant eg. Hibitane. Hibitane can be obtained from any veterinary practice. Should a disinfectant not be available then clean running water will suffice.

There are 4 layers in a wound bandage :

Layer 1 - Wound dressing
There are a lot of different types of wound dressings and the type of wound will determine the type of dressing used. Never apply cotton wool directly to an open wound. It will stick to the wound and when you remove it, you may remove all the healthy healing tissue. Cotton wool also tends to remain behind in the wound.

Gauze can be used on most wounds and is easily obtained in different shapes and sizes from most pharmacies. It is recommended to apply a cream to prevent the gauze from sticking directly to the wound. The cream should be water-based and not oil-based (eg: Vaseline). A great example of a water based cream is Silbecor (active ingredient - silver sulphadiazine) or Podine Ointment (active ingredient - iodine). If the wound is dirty and/or infected then Acriflavine Glycerine may be used. Please bear in mind though that it can blister the legs.

Layer 2 - Cotton wool / Gamgee
Once the wound is covered the next layer would consist of Gamgee or Cotton wool. Apply generous amounts of cotton wool as this will prevent pressure sores. Start above the wound spiralling downwards and then if possible back up again.

Layer 3 - Crepe
Crepe will be your next layer and when applying, use uniform pressure. Each layer should overlap the previous layer at least.

Layer 4 - Elastoplast
The final layer will consist of Elastoplast. This layer is to add protection and not to be used to stabilise the bandage. Apply one layer relatively loosely and these should overlap each other by 30%. Cover the top and the bottom of the bandage to prevent any dirt getting to the wound site.

Tip : It does help if all the layers are applied in the same direction.

Support Bandages

Support bandages can make an impact to a horses' level of pain. These bandages are used on horses that are extremely lame and unable to put weight on the injured leg. Remember though that the other leg is now bearing all the weight, and will thus require support.

Thus there are 2 types :

  • The simple support bandage - used on the opposite leg for support.
  • Robert Jones bandage - supports and stabilises the injured leg.

Simple support bandage
The simple support bandage is very similar to the Robert Jones bandage except you do not apply the second layer of cotton wool and crepe.

It is however important to note that all layers are applied down to the ground.

Bandages Relating to Certain Anatomical Areas

Foot bandage
The foot bandage may seem fairly complicated but once you have done it a few times, it becomes simple to apply. Acriflavine glycerine is good to use. It has an osmotic effect which may help with bruises and abscesses. As a first layer there are a few options; cotton wool/gamgee and/or nappies.

Nappies are fantastic to use as they are easy to apply and the sticky tapes keep it in place. They don't wear through as easily as cotton wool for example. If you require additional padding a second nappy or a layer of cotton wool may be applied. The second layer will be the crepe bandage. Wrap the crepe around the hoof to cover all areas of the nappy. Be sure not to apply too much pressure to the bulbs of the heels. Elastoplast or duct tape can be your third layer. The Elastoplast wraps around the hoof to cover the crepe. Apply a loose layer of it around the top of the bandage to prevent dirt or shavings from getting in - this is optional. Duct tape makes for a very good third layer. Stick 5/6 strips of duct tape approximately 30cm in length to each other, overlapping +-50% to make a square. Then stick a second layer of 5/6 strips on top of the first layer in the opposite direction. Stick it to the bottom of the hoof and secure it with more duct tape. Duct tape is tough, hardy and generally lasts longer than Elastoplast.

Pressure points:
Bulbs of the heel - Do not apply too tight over the heels

Distal limb bandages
This bandage is applied to the lower part of the leg from the knee/hock. It is important to note that the bandage should be applied all the way to the ground to prevent swelling distally. A bandage applied too tightly or with too little cotton wool will cause serious damage to the tendons.

When bandaging the fetlock, the bandage does not have to go all the way to the ground. It is however very important to apply enough pressure so the bandage won't slip down the leg and cause undue pressure.

Knee and hock bandage
These bandages are difficult to apply, and slip easily. The knees and hocks do have pressure points; proper and enough padding is vital! A "figure of 8" bandage works best as it does not put unnecessary pressure on the pressure points with the cross over area at the front. It is a good idea to do this under veterinary supervision - if possible. If need be, a lower limb bandage may be applied to keep the knee or hock bandage in place.

Pressure points on the knee:

  • On the inside of the knee where you can see a "pointy" bone like structure
  • On the back of the knee - the "pointy" bone like structure

Pressure points on the hock:

  • The tendons go up from the point of the hock.

To prevent pressure, it's a good idea to use 2 rolls of crepe or rolled up cotton wool. Put these on the inside and outside of the tendon to fill up the area. Apply the bandage while keeping these in place with either sticky tape or if you have an extra pair of hands available to hold them in place.

Robert Jones Bandage - this should be done by a vet or under vet supervision if possible

Remember one word : LAYERS

A Robert Jones bandage is basically made up of a primary layer which is then repeated. The primary layer includes 2 layers of cottonwool and 2 layers of Crepe. This is then repeated but with a layer of Elastoplast on top.

If there is no open wound, go straight to applying the cotton wool. Unroll the cotton wool and start from above the injured area spiralling all the way down to the ground. Apply at least 2 layers that overlap each other.

The first layer of crepe is to keep the cotton wool in place and define the shape of the bandage. The second layer is to apply pressure evenly over the whole bandage.

Most owners do not apply enough pressure.

A third crepe can also be applied depending on the length of the bandage.

Remember : Approximately 1cm of cotton wool should always be visible at the top and bottom of the bandage after the crepe is applied.

Unroll the Elastoplast prior to applying it as you can then apply even pressure. Make sure to start from the top of the bandage, above the layer of cotton wool (to prevent any dirt from getting in) and spiral down the leg to the ground, lastly applying a loop around the heels of the hoof.

For more information, please visit :

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